ज्ञान Jnana & विज्ञान Vijnana
चतुर्दशानां विद्यानां धारणं हि यथार्थतः। विज्ञानमिति तद्विद्याद्यत्र धर्मो विवर्द्धते॥
To achieve the knowledge of the fourteen lores, viz., four Vedas, six Vedāngas, Purānas, Nyayaśāstras, Mimānsă and Dharmaśāstras, in a realistic manner is known as Vijñana (perfect knowledge), which increases the dharma.
अधीत्य विधिवद्वेदानर्थञ्चैवोपलभ्य तु। धर्मकार्यान्निवृत्तश्चेन्न तद्विज्ञानमिष्यते॥
Studying the Vedas appropriately and well understanding the relevant interpretations, the one who neglects the religious duties, his knowledge cannot be equated with vijñana.
यया स देवो भगवान्विद्यया वेद्यते परः। साक्षाद्देवो महादेवस्तज्ज्ञानमिति कीर्तितम्।।
The knowledge by which, one can have face to face with lord Mahādeva, the same is known as jñana or knowledge.
Vedic Sciences and technology [VST] has both divine and human origin. The origin of VST is associated with soul based infinite intuition as well as close observation and analysis. Focused observation of the heavenly bodies and their movements made the people conscious of their regularity, periodicity and subsumability under laws. For agricultural activities, navigation and various other purposes calculation and measurement of different units of space, time and other things- chemical, metallurgical, biological and pharmaceutical – were found absolutely essential. The concepts of moment, month, year, yuga, kalpa, mahayuga, etc. emerged. Also appeared the concepts like anuka (mono-atomic), dvyanuka (di-atomic), and tryanuka (tri-atomic). To the scientist-philosopher the necessity of explaining the configuration or combination of innumerable atoms into objects of different sizes micro and macro, in terms of laws and otherwise (in terms of God-like principles, adrishta, apurva, e.g.) proved imperative.